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CBSE Revision Notes for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Chapter Sketch
This chapter has been taken from Nelson Mandela’s book of the same name ‘Nelson Mandela : A Long Walk to Freedom’. It provides us a glimpse of the early life of Nelson Mandela, his education, 30 years in prison and the pains he had suffered in his young age. The chapter recounts his fight for the freedom for his own people who were tortured by whites.
In the chapter Mandela gives two contradictory pictures of his own country-one, in which the blacks were tortured and suffered quietly and second, the blacks will be free to live the life of their own.

About the Characters
Nelson Mandela First black President of South Africa who fought for the equal rights of the black. He suffered a lot of pain for the freedom.
Zenani Daughter of Nelson Mandela who accompanied Mandela in his inauguration day. She was very much close to him.
Thabo Mbeki First Deputy President of South Africa who was very close to Mandela.
Mr. Deklerk Second Deputy President of South Africa


The Inauguration
It was 10th May the day of oath with a bright and shiny sun. Nelson Mandela was supposed to take oath as the first black President of South Africa. A large number of leaders all from around the world had gathered there to be the witness of the swearing-in ceremony of Nelson Mandela as the first black President. The inauguration ceremony took place in a big open building in Pretoria where the first democratic non-racial government was to be installed.

The Swearing-In Ceremony of Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela was accompanied by his daughter Zenani. Mr Deklerk was the first person who took oath as secpnd Deputy President followed by Mr Thabo Mbeki who sweared as the first Deputy President of South Africa. Nelson Mandela was the last person who sweared as the first black President of South Africa. He pledged to obey and uphold the Constitution and to devote himself to the well-being of the people. He also promised to make the nation free from poverty, deprivation, suffering and all sort of discrimination.

Display of the Military Power by South African Jets
When Mandela had taken oath, South African jets displayed the military power. It also showed the loyalty of military to democracy. The highest military generals saluted him. He recounted that they would have arrested him many years before.
It was followed by the playing of two national anthems. The whites’sang ‘Nkosi Sikelel’ the old song and the blacks sang ‘Die Stem’ the new song which marked the end of the ceremony.

Apartheid and South Africa
l Nelson Mandela reminiscences about days gone by which will soon be the part of history where the whites had formed a system of racial dominance against the blacks. It was the basis of the harsh societies which is now overturned. He says , that the policy of apartheid created a deep and lasting wound
on his country and its people.
Now it is the system that recognised the rights and freedom of all people.

Regret of Mandela and Remembrance of Freedom Fighters
On the auspicious day Mandela regretted the loss of thousands of people and remembered their sacrifices for the freedom from discrimination. He thought of himself as the sum of all those African patriots who sacrificed their lives before him. He was pained that he couldn’t thank them.
He recalled great freedom fighters like Oliver, Tambos, Walter Sisulu, Chief Luthuli, Yusuf Dadoo, etc. who were the men of uncommon courage, wisdom and generosity.
He said that the country is rich in minerals but its greatest wealth is its people.

Goodness and Duties of a Man
The author says that being white or black is not the token of your goodness or superiority. No one is born hating other, people should love one another which comes without force as it is natural. It is man’s essential goodness.
A man has to perform duties to his family, community and country which he didn’t see in his country before he pushed himself to fight for the blacks. A black man was punished if he tried to live like a human being and forced to live apart from his own people. So, he was not allowed to perform his duties to his family.

Meaning of Freedom by Mandela
As a kid Mandela had different meaning for being free as he wanted to run in the fields and wanted to stay out at night. As he grew older he wanted the freedom of livelihood for himself and his family.
But soon he realised that such freedom was only an illusion, j He realised that his brothers and sisters who looked like him were not free, so he joined African National Congress (ANC). His hunger for freedom became great for the freedom of his people. He desired that everyone should be given the right to live his life with dignity and respect. He wanted the oppressor and the oppressed to be liberated. As no one is free if one is taking someone else’s freedom. Only such feelings can bring true freedom for everyone.

Chapter Highlights

  1. 10th of May was, a day of freedom for South Africa and there was huge gathering of international leaders and dignitaries.
  2. Inauguration ceremony or swearing in ceremony was being held in Union Building in Pretoria and first non-racial government took the charge.
  3. Nelson Mandela gave speech on the victory for justice, peace and human dignity.
  4. Mandela pledged to liberate his people from poverty, suffering and discrimination.
  5. A colourful show by jets and helicopters to show military’s loyalty took place.
  6. Singing of two national anthems was done-the old ‘Nkosi Sikelel’ by the whites and the new ‘Die stem’ by the blacks.
  7. A new system that recognised the rights and freedom of all people was formed.
  8. Mandela remembered and thanked the people who sacrificed their lives for the freedom.
  9. Salutation to some great freedom fighters – Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu, Chief Luthuli, Yusuf Dadoo and others.
  10. Mandela said in speech that a country is rich because of its people not because of the minerals. Courage is not the absence of fear but the victory over it. People should love others and not hate them due to colour or religion. Love comes naturally not by force, which is the natural goodness.
  11. He also stated that a man should try to make a balance between his duties – duty to his family and duty to his community and country. A black person was treated badly and not allowed to perform his duties.
  12. According to Mandela, freedom has many aspects like – for a kid it is to run and play, for an adult it is to fulfil the needs, of his own and his family. Real freedom means equal rights for everyone.
  13. Nelson Mandela joined the African National Congress (ANC). He desired people to live with dignity and respect. He wanted the oppressor and the oppressed to be liberated.
  14. Patience and perseverance guided by discipline and system yield the desire result.

The given page nos. correspond to the pages in the prescribed text book.

Word Meaning


policy of racial segregation
extract piece
autobiography life story (biography) of a person written by himself
inauguration opening ceremony, marking the beginning of
amphitheatre large open theatre
dignitaries eminent persons
oppression torture
jubilant joyful, happy


came out
besieged surrounded
decades period of ten years
supremacy being superior
installation placement
non-racial raceless
podium stage


to keep up
well-being state of cheerfulness
glory grace
disaster great tragedy
outlaws those who do not observe laws or rules
rare privilege uncommon right
distinguished very famous
possession control
emancipation freedom from restriction, liberation
bondage slavery
deprivation state of not having one’s benefits
gender being male or female
discrimination state of being treated differently
glorious beautiful, grand
awe respect and fear
spectacular array attractive display
troop carriers vehicles carrying soldiers
pinpoint precision complete/ perfect order
demonstration show
loyalty sincerity
gedecked decorated
unmindful not knowing
chevron a pattern like V
trail line
symbolised was like a symbol
lyrics song
despised hated
overwhelmed overflowed
patched up finished
Word Meaning
erected built
racial domination control due to race
structure forming of something, fabricature
harshest most stern
inhumane not humane


which can’t be thought of
sacrifices offering something valuable for slaughter
wrought done
generations single stage in a family history
profound deep and strong
brutality cruelty
unintended not thought of


large heartedness
minerals metals etc, taken from the earth
torture to tr§at cruelly, to make one suffer physically
resilience ability to deal with any hardship, elasticity
defies (here) that can’t be explained
conquers gets victory
grimmest saddest, serious
pushed to our limits (here) pushed to the wall
glimmer a little shine
humanity humanism
extinguished put out
obligations duties
humane (here) kind


natural tendencies, leanings
attempted tried
Isolated made lonely
inevitably unavoidably
ripped (here) taken away
twilight existence (here) a little life
secrecy and rebellion having secrecy and opposition
roast mealies bake maize corns
abided obeyed
transitory not permanent
yearned desired deeply
obstructed hindered
curtailed reduced


respect, grace
animated (here) gave life
law-abiding attorney lawyer who obeys rules
virtuous full of virtues
oppressor one who oppresses others
oppressed one who bears tortures
bars rods
prejudice hatred, bias
narrow-mindedness state of having narrow beliefs about religion etc


Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom Summary In Hindi

उद्घाटन का विन
दस मई आ गई। मौसम चमकीला और साफ था। लेखक के पास शुभकामना देने के लिये दुनिया के काफी नेता आ रहे थे। यह उद्घाटन से पहले था। वहाँ उद्घाटन दुनिया के नेताओं को महानतम जमघट होना था।

उद्घाटन का स्थान
प्रेटोरिया में एक बड़े खुले स्थान में उद्घाटन कार्यक्रम हुये। यहाँ पर दक्षिणी अफ्रीका की प्रथम गैर-वर्ण (जातीय) सरकार का संस्थापन करना था।

शपथ लेने का कार्यक्रम
उस दिन लेखक अपनी पुत्री जेनानी की संगत में था। सर्वप्रथम मिस्टर डी क्लार्क को द्वितीय उपराष्ट्रपति की शपथ दिलाई गई। फिर थबो म्बेकी को प्रथम उपराष्ट्रपति की शपथ दिलाई गई। तब लेखक की बारी थी। उसे राष्ट्रपति की शपथ दिलाई गई। उसने संविधान की रक्षा करने और उसे मानने की शपथ ली। उसने व्यक्तियों की भलाई के प्रति लगाव रखने की भी शपथ ली।

लेखक का भाषण
लेखक ने नई उत्पन्न हुई स्वतन्त्रता के बारे में बोला। उसने सभी अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय मेहमानों का धन्यवाद किया। उसने कहा कि वे उसके देशवासियों के साथ होने के लिए वहाँ आए थे। यह न्याय, शान्ति और मानव सम्मान के लिए आम (साझी) विजय थी। उसने अपने देशवासियों को गरीबी, दु:ख और भेदभाव से स्वतन्त्र करने की शपथ ली।

जैट और हैलिकाप्टरों का प्रदर्शन
कुछ क्षणों पश्चात् दक्षिणी अफ्रीकी रंगीन जैट और हैलिकाप्टर वहाँ यूनियन की बिल्डिंगों पर उड़े। यह नई सरकार के प्रति उसके प्रजातन्त्र के लिए मिलिटरी (सैनिक) वफादारी थी। फिर अपनी छाती पर तमगे लगाए हुए मिलिटरी के उच्चतम जनरलों ने लेखक को सलाम किया। उसने सोचा कि काफी वर्ष पहले उन्होंने उसे गिरफ्तार कर लिया होता।

राष्ट्रीय गान का गाना
लेखक के लिए दिन को दो राष्ट्रीय गानों द्वारा प्रतीकात्मक किया गया। गोरों ने ‘नकोसी सिकेलल’ गाया और कालों ने ‘डाई स्टैम’ गाया। ये गणतन्त्र के पुराने गान थे।

लेखक के विचार
उद्घाटन के उस दिन लेखक ने इतिहास के बारे में सोचा। पहले दशक में दक्षिणी अफ्रीका के व्यक्तियों ने अन्य काले व्यक्तियों के साथ अपने भेदभाव समाप्त कर लिए थे। उन्होंने अपनी श्रेष्टता के सिस्टम को भी बना लिया था। यह सर्वाधिक सख्त समाजों का आधार था। अब यह व्यवस्था समाप्त हो गई थी। अब यह व्यवस्था धी जो सभी व्यक्तियों के अधिकारों और स्वतन्त्रता को पहचानती थी।

लेखक का पश्चाताप
हजारों व्यक्तियों की कुर्बानियों के पश्चात् यह शुभ दिन आया था। लेखक ने स्वयं को उन सभी व्यक्तियों का निचोड़ माना। उसे कष्ट था कि वह उनका धन्यवाद नहीं कर सकता था।

स्वतन्त्रता सेनानियों को याद करना
रंगभेद की नीति ने उसके देश और उसके व्यक्तियों के अन्दर काफी समय तक रहने वाला घाव उत्पन्न कर दिया। इस नीति ने महान स्वतन्त्रता सेनानी उत्पन्न किए थे। ये थे ओलिवर ताम्बोज, वाल्टर सिसुलस, चीफ लथुलिस, युसुफ डाडूस आदि। वे असाधारण उत्साह, बुद्धिमत्ता और उदारता के व्यक्ति थे। देश खनिज पदार्थों में अमीर था। परन्तु इसका महान धन इसके, व्यक्ति थे।

उत्साह की परिभाषा
इन व्यक्तियों से लेखक ने उत्साह का अर्थ समझा। उन्होंने अपने जीवन को खतरों में डाला। उन्होंने काफी सन्ताप सहन किए। उसने सीखा कि उत्साह भय की अनुपस्थिति नहीं थी परन्तु इसके ऊपर विजय थी।

मनुष्य की प्राकृतिक महानता
लेखक कहता है कि कोई भी व्यक्ति रंग और धर्म के कारण दूसरे व्यक्ति से घृणा करता हुआ जन्म नहीं लेता। उन्हें प्यार करना सिखाया जा सकता है। प्यार मानव दिल में प्राकृतिक रूप में आता है। जेल में उन्हें दीवार तक लगा दिया गया था। परन्तु उसने गाड़ के दिलों में मानवता देखी। यह मनुष्य की आवश्यक अच्छाई थी। इसे समाप्त नहीं किया जा सकता।

मनुष्य के कर्तव्य
जीवन में हरेक व्यक्ति के दो कर्त्तव्य हैं अपने परिवार, अपने समाज और देश के प्रति। लेखक को इन दोनों कर्तव्यों को पूरा करने में काफी कठिनाई आई। यह इसलिए था कि दक्षिणी अफ्रीका में काले व्यक्ति को यदि वह एक मनुष्य की तरह रहता तो सजा दी जाती थी। ऐसे व्यक्ति को अपने ही व्यक्तियों से अलग रहने के लिए मजबूर किया जाता। इसलिए उसे अपने परिवार के प्रति कर्तव्यों को पूरा करने की अनुमति नहीं थी।

स्वतन्त्रता की परिभाषा
लेखक स्वतन्त्र पैदा हुआ। वह स्वतन्त्र होने की भूख के साथ पैदा नहीं हुआ था। वह अपने पिता की आज्ञा पालने और अपने कबीले के रीति रिवाजों को मानने में स्वतन्त्र था। परन्तु शीघ्र ही उसने महसूस किया कि उसकी स्वतन्त्रता एक भ्रम था। उसने स्वतन्त्रता के लिए भूखा मरना आरम्भ किया जब उसे (स्वतन्त्रता) उससे ले लिया गया। विद्यार्थी के रूप में वह पढ़ने और जाने की स्वतन्त्रता चाहता था। जोहान्सबर्ग में युवा के रूप में वह अपनी ताकत के अनुसार बनने की स्वतन्त्रता चाहता था। वह अपनी और परिवार की रोजी-रोटी की स्वतन्त्रता भी चाहता था।

स्वतन्त्रता की इच्छा द्वारा उसका बहादुर बनना।
परन्तु शीघ्र ही उसने देखा कि वह अपने भाइयों और बहनों की तरह वह भी स्वतन्त्र नहीं था। तब वह अफ्रीकन नेशनल कांग्रेस में सम्मिलित हो गया। स्वतन्त्रता की उसकी भूख उसके व्यक्तियों की स्वतन्त्रता के लिए अत्यधिक हो गई। उसकी व्यक्तियों की शान से रहने की स्वतन्त्रता के लिये इच्छा ने उसे ताकत दी। उसने इसे बहादुर बना दिया। उसने उसे एक भिक्षुक की तरह रहने के लिए मजबूर कर दिया। उसके व्यक्तियों की जंजीरे उसके लिए भी जंजीरें बन गईं।

बिना मानवता के अत्याचारी और अत्याचार सहने वाले
लेखक जानता था कि अत्याचारों को अत्याचार सहन करने वालों की तरह स्वतन्त्र किया जाना चाहिए। एक व्यक्ति जो दूसरे की स्वतन्त्रता छीनता है वह घृणित हो जाता है। कोई भी व्यक्ति स्वतन्त्र नहीं है यदि वह किसी दूसरे की स्वतन्त्रता ले रहा है। दोनों अत्याचारी और अत्याचार सहन करने वालों से मानवता छिन जाती

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