Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 16 Rise of Popular Movements Nature of Popular Movements The nature of popular movements can be simple as well as complex. Popular movements depict a very unusual form of collective action. From time to time many popular movements took place for protest. Here some novel tactics for protest are [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 15 The Crisis of Democratic Order Background to Emergency 1970’s was a period of political turmoil in India. This period witnessed tensions in relationship between the government and the judiciary. Ideological differences erupted within the Congress and it sharpened the division between Indira Gandhi and her opponents. Economic Context [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 13 India’s External Relations International Context or Relations In post independence period, India faced many challenges to make a strong foreign policy. India shaped its foreign relations with an aim to respect the sovereignty of all other nations and to achieve security through the maintenance of peace. In post [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 11 Era of One-Party Dominance Challenge of Building Democracy The Election Commission of India was set-up in January 1950. Sukumar Sen was the first Chief Election Commissioner. India’s vast size and low literacy rate etc were some of challenges to hold general elections in 1952. Despite these challenges the [...]