Class 12 History Notes Chapter 15 Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era Indian constitution was prepared by the learned members of the Constituent Assembly. The constitution was framed between December 1946 to December, 1949. Each clause of the constitution was discussed by the Constituent Assembly. All in all, eleven sessions of Constituent [...]
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 14 Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, Experiences The British policy of Divide and Rule played a key role in spreading of communal-ism. Earlier the British attitude towards the Muslim was not favorable, they think that they were responsible for the revolt of 1857. But soon they felt that due to their [...]
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 13 Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Porbandar on 2nd October, 1869. Gandhiji left for South Africa as a barrister to argue a case in 1893. Gandhiji returned from South Africa in Jan, 1915. Gopal Krishna Gokhale- The political Guru [...]
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 12 Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture With the decline to the Mughal Empire in the 18th century, many old lords lost their importance. 18th century marks the emergences of many new kingdoms like Lucknow, Hyderabad, Poona, Baroda, Nagpur, etc, The port towns/cities swat, Masulipatnam, and Dhaka which developed in [...]
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 11 Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its Representations Since the mid-18th century, Nawabs and Rajas had gradually lost their power and authority. Their freedom was curtailed, their armed forces were disbanded and their revenues and territories were taken away. Many ruling families such as Rani Lakshmibai [...]
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives In India British rule was first of all established in Bengal. Permanent settlement of land revenue was adopted in Bengal in 1793. The economic measure adopted by the British government made India a consumer of goods manufactured in England. By the end [...]
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9 Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts Chronicles of the Mughal Emperor provides us valuable informations about the institution of Mughal state. These texts clearly depicted the policies of Mughal Empire which they sought to impose on their domain. Babur was the founder of Mughal Empire. His grandson, Akbar, was [...]
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8 Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire During 16th and 17th centuries, nearly 85% of Indian population lived in villages. Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Peasants and landlords were engaged in agricultural production. Agriculture, the common occupation of peasants and landlords created [...]
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 7 An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara The Vijayanagara Empire was the most dignified and glorious empire of South India. Its Capital was Hampi. Hampi was discovered by Colin Mackenzie, the first Surveyor General of India in 1815. His (Colin Mackenzie’s) arduous work, gave a new direction to all the future researcher. [...]
Class 12 History Notes Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts From 8th-18th century Bhakti Movement, Islam and Sufi movement played an important role in the history of medieval India. The Alvars and the Nayanars were considered as the founder of Bhakti movement in southern India. The Alvars were the devotees [...]