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Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 2 Rights and Duties in the Indian Constitution

  • Rights are the favorable conditions and guarantees to be provided by a state to its citizens to live up a dignified life.
  • These rights can be categorized as Social Rights, Political Rights and Fundamental Rights to procure equality, liberty and social justice into society.
  • Fundamental Rights are specially protected to ensure that they are not violated even by the government. Because these are protected by the constitution of the country.
  • There are 6 Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Indian Constitution to its citizens:
    • Right to Equality
    • Right to Freedom
    • Right to Freedom of Religion
    • Right against Exploitation
    • Cultural and Educational Rights
    • Right to Constitutional Remedies
  • Fundamental Rights except the Right to Life and personal liberty may be suspended only during the emergencies like foreign attacks or internal disturbances.
  • South African Constitution grants most extensive range of rights to its citizens including even right to dignity, privacy, fair labour practices, healthy environment, adequate housing, information, etc.
  • Indian Constitution contains Directive Principles of State Policy also to establish a welfare state along with the Fundamental Rights.
  • The judiciary has the power to enforce the Fundamental Rights but the Directive Principles of State are not enforceable by law.
  • By the 42nd amendment, in 1976, the Fundamental Duties have also been inserted which are ten in numbers to defend our country, promote harmony and protect the environment.
  • The inclusion of fundamental duties has not changed the status of our fundamental rights.

Important terms:

  • Rights: These are guarantees to citizens to live up a social life in a dignified manner.
  • Duties: A performance towards others or society to enjoy rights.
  • Constitutional Remedies: Protective arrangements to citizens by the Constitution against any exploitation.
  • Exploitation: The act of doing injustice with others in any manner.
  • Begar: A forced labour without payment.
  • Minorities: These are the groups having common language or religion and in a particular part of the country or in a country as a whole, these are out-numbered by some other social sections.
  • Marginalized Communities: Communities left ignored like Dalits, OBCs, Weaker sections,, etc.

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