पाठ – 8 क्षेत्रीय आकांक्षाएं In this post we have given the detailed notes of Class 12 Political Science Chapter 8 Chettriye Akanshayen (Regional Aspirations) in Hindi. These notes are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams. इस पोस्ट में क्लास 12 के राजनीति विज्ञान के पाठ 8 [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 18 Recent Developments in Indian Politics Context of the 1990s After the assassination of Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi became the Prime Minister and he led the Congress to a massive victory in the Lok Sabha elections held in 1984. The decade of the eighties witnessed five developments that left [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations Region and the Nation: Indian Approach The Indian approach in nation building is to balance the principles of unity and diversity. The nation would not mean the negation of the region. The one basic principle of the Indian approach to diversity is, the Indian Nation shall [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 16 Rise of Popular Movements Nature of Popular Movements The nature of popular movements can be simple as well as complex. Popular movements depict a very unusual form of collective action. From time to time many popular movements took place for protest. Here some novel tactics for protest are [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 15 The Crisis of Democratic Order Background to Emergency 1970’s was a period of political turmoil in India. This period witnessed tensions in relationship between the government and the judiciary. Ideological differences erupted within the Congress and it sharpened the division between Indira Gandhi and her opponents. Economic Context [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Challenge of Political Succession Nehru’s death in 1964 generated a lot of speculation about the question of succession. The 1960s were labelled as the ‘dangerous decade’ due to many challenges and unsolved problems. After the death of Nehru, Lai Bahadur Shastri [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 13 India’s External Relations International Context or Relations In post independence period, India faced many challenges to make a strong foreign policy. India shaped its foreign relations with an aim to respect the sovereignty of all other nations and to achieve security through the maintenance of peace. In post [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development Political Contestation In a democracy or in a democrative country the final decision must be a political decision, taken by people’s representatives who are in touch with the feelings of the people. After independence, everyone agreed that the development of India will take place [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 11 Era of One-Party Dominance Challenge of Building Democracy The Election Commission of India was set-up in January 1950. Sukumar Sen was the first Chief Election Commissioner. India’s vast size and low literacy rate etc were some of challenges to hold general elections in 1952. Despite these challenges the [...]
Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 10 Challenges of Nation Building Challenges for the New Nation India became independent in August 1947 immediately after independence, there were three challenges in nation building The first and the immediate challenge was to shape nation that was united, yet accommodative of the diversity existing in the society and [...]