Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 The Central Islamic Lands

  • Prior to the rise of Islam, Arabia was quite backward socially, politically, economically and religiously in the 7th century.
  • Before the rise of Islam, Arabia was dominated by the Bedouins, a nomadic tribe.
  • Family was the basic unit of the Arabian society. Patriarchal family system was prevalent in which the head of the family was the eldest male member.
  • The position of the women in the society was very deplorable.
  • Date-palm and milk were the main constituents of their food items.
  • Institution of slavery was also prevalent in the society. The slaves were treated ruthlesslyand were severely punished if broke the social norms. k
  • Prior to the rise of Islam, the trade was not much developed. It was because Bedouins Iwere always indulged in loot and plunder and trade routes were not safe.
  • The principle of‘Might is right’ prevailed in the society prior to the rise of Islam, because there was lack of a central authority.
  • Prophet Muhammad is regarded as one of the greatest personalities in the world history. He was born at Mecca in 570.
  • Reciting Raima, Namaz, Rauja, Zakat and Hajj are five pillars of Islam.
  • Islam laid special stress on the principle of equality and believed that all men are the descendants of Allah.
  • Islam strongly opposed idol worship.
  • The successors of Prophet Muhammad were called Khalifas (Caliphs).
  • The main duties of the Khalifas were to safeguard and spread Islam.
  • The Umayyad dynasty was founded by Muawiya in 661. The rule of this dynasty continued till 750.
  • The Abbasids came to power in 750. The foundation of Abbasids dynasty was laid down by Abu-ol-Abbas in 750.
  • 9th century witnessed the downfall of the Abbasid empire. Taking the advantage of this, several sultanates emerged.
  • The economic condition of Islamic world, during the medieval period was very prosperous.
  • During medieval period, a new sect arose among the people having faith in Islamic doctrines, known as sufi sect.
  • The Sufis were liberal in their thought and they dedicated their lives for the service of humanity and propagation of Islam.
  • Ibn Sina was a great philosopher and a medical practitioner from Arabia. He was also known as Avicenna in Europe.

Important terms:

  • Bedouins: The nomadic tribe of Arabia.
  • Umma: The society founded by Prophet Muhammad.
  • Hizrat: The event of Prophet Muhammad’s emigration from Mecca to Medina.
  • Zakat: A religious tax collected from Muslims.
  • Jaziya: A tax imposed upon the non-Muslims.
  • Dhimmis: They were the protected people who paid tax to the government for the protection of their life and property.
  • Synagogues: Places of worship for the Jews.
Timeline
595 Muhammad marries Khadija, a wealthy Meccan trader who later supports Islam
610-12 Muhammad has first revelation; first public preaching of Islam (612)
621 First agreement at Aqaba with Medinan converts
622 Migration from Mecca to Medina. Arab tribes of Medina (ansar) shelter Meccan migrants (muhajir)
632-61 Early caliphate; conquests of Syria, Iraq, Iran and Egypt; civil wars
661-750 Umayyad rule; Damascus becomes the capital
750-945 Abbasid rule; Baghdad becomes the capital
945 Buyids capture Baghdad; literary and cultural efflorescence
1063-1092 Rule of Nizamul mulk, the powerful Saljuq wazir who established a string of madrasas called Nizamiyya; killed by Hashishayn (Assassins)
1095-1291 Crusades; contacts between Muslims and Christians
1111 Death of Ghazali, the influential Iranian scholar who opposed rationalism
1258 Mongols capture Baghdad

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