Class 11 History Notes Chapter 11 Paths to Modernization China and Japan present a marked physical contrast. China is a vast continental country with many climatic zones. China and Japan are situated in far East Asia. China dominated the East in the beginning of the 19th century. China is dominated by three major rivers. These [...]
Class 11 History Notes Chapter 10 Displacing Indigenous Peoples The American empires of Spain and Portugal did not expand after the 17th century. The countries like Holland, France and England began to expand their trading activities and to establish colonies in America, Africa and Asia after 17th century. The word ‘Settler’ is used for the [...]
Class 11 History Notes Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution Industrial revolution started in England and spread in different parts of the world gradually. The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ was used by European scholars-Georges Michelet in France and Fried-rich Engels in Germany. It was used for the first time in English by the philosopher and economist Arnold [...]
Class 11 History Notes Chapter 8 Confrontation of Cultures During the 15th century, the geographical discoveries made by Europeans heralded the beginning of a new era. These geographical discoveries were mainly influenced by new scientific inventions, travelers’ accounts, political and religious motives, etc. In 1492, a Spanish sailor Christopher Columbus discovered America. Later on Italian [...]
Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 Changing Cultural Traditions Many significant changes took place in cultural traditions of Europe between 14th to 17th centuries. The church mainly influenced the life of people a lot. ‘ Renaissance is a French word. Fall of feudalism, the religious wars between Christians and Muslims, commercial properties, etc. were the [...]
Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The Three Orders Western European society was divided into three orders between the ninth and the sixteenth centuries. The three orders of the western society include: The Clergy The Nobility and The Peasantry. Clergy enjoyed special status. They were exempted from paying taxes. The nobility also enjoyed a respectable [...]
Class 11 History Notes Chapter 5 Nomadic Empires Mongols were the nomadic tribes who inhabited in central Asia. Mongols were divided into many groups. These groups were constantly engaged in wars with each other. Mongol society was patriarchal in nature. Birth of a son was considered to be the sign of prosperity. Genghis Khan played [...]
Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 The Central Islamic Lands Prior to the rise of Islam, Arabia was quite backward socially, politically, economically and religiously in the 7th century. Before the rise of Islam, Arabia was dominated by the Bedouins, a nomadic tribe. Family was the basic unit of the Arabian society. Patriarchal family system [...]
Class 11 History Notes Chapter 3 An Empire Across Three Continents The Roman empire was spread over a vast region. It was spread into three continents— Europe, West Asia and North Africa. Many languages were spoken by the people of the Roman empire. Officially Latin and Greek languages were patronised by the empire. The political [...]
Class 11 History Notes Chapter 2 Writing and City Life A great civilization flourished in Mesopotamia around 5000 BCE. Mesopotamia is the modern Iraq. Originally Mesopotamia is a Greek word which means the land between two rivers. Tigris and Euphrates were the two rivers between which the civilization of Mesopotamia flourished. Mesopotamia is a flat [...]