Class 11 History Notes Chapter 11 Paths to Modernization

  • China and Japan present a marked physical contrast.
  • China is a vast continental country with many climatic zones.
  • China and Japan are situated in far East Asia.
  • China dominated the East in the beginning of the 19th century.
  • China is dominated by three major rivers. These rivers are Huang He, the Yangtse and the Pearl river.
  • A large part of China is mountainous.
  • The most dominant ethnic group of China is ‘Han’ and the major language is Chinese ‘Putonghua’.
  • Chinese foods reflect the regional diversity. The best known is southern or cantonese cuisine.
  • Japan was divided into more than 250 domains under the rule of lords called daimyo.
  • Japan is situated in the Pacific ocean.
  • Japan is a string of islands. It is an archipelago consisting of more than 3,000 islands. Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku and Hokkaido are the four largest islands of Japan.
  • Japan is also known as the ‘Land of Rising Sun’.
  • The Shoguns made Edo, the capital of Japan.
  • The tradition of animal rearing is not prevalent.
  • Edo is modem Tokyo.
  • Japanese emperor was known as Mikado.
  • Uighur, Hui, Manchu and Tibetan are the other nationalities of the Chinese.
  • The Samurai were warriors and helped the Shogun in running the administration.
  • Printing was done with wood blocks in Japan. The Japanese were not interested in European printing.
  • Edo, the capital city of Japan became the most populated city in the middle of the 17th century.
  • The Meiji restoration is termed as one of the most momentous events in the Japanese history.
  • In 1871, under Meiji’s rule feudalism was abolished.
  • Tokyo University was established under the rule of Meiji in 1877.
  • Military reforms were also introduced during Meiji rule.
  • In 1872, modem banking institutions were launched.
  • Under Meiji’s rule new constitution was introduced.
  • In 1889, Japan adopted the new constitution.
  • Miyake Setsurei was a well-known Japanese philosopher.
  • Miyake Setsurei believed that every nation must develop its special talent in the interest of the world civilization.
  • In Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95, China faced a humiliating defeat at the hands of Japanese.
  • On April 17,1895, Treaty of Shimoneski was signed between China and Japan.
  • Defeat of China at the hands of Japan made China vulnerable.
  • The Chinese declared after the war that both China and Japan needed reforms for modernization.
  • Sino-Japanese war served the basis for the Anglo-Japanese alliance in 1902.
  • Two opium wars were fought between China and England between 1839-42 and 1856-60 respectively.
  • After the decline of Manchu empire, a republic was established in 1911 in China.
  • In 1912, Dr. Sun Yat-sen formed a national party of China. It was known as Guomindang.
  • The People’s Republic of China came into existence in 1949.
  • In 1949, Communist Government was established in China and began a new age in the history of China.

Important terms:

  • Soviet: Elected council of peasants and workers
  • Daimyo: Lords of the domain under their possession.
  • Shogun: Official title of sell-Taishogun.
  • Zaibastu: Large business houses controlled by individual families.
  • Triangular trade: Trade carried out among three countries.
  • Comintern: Communist International
  • Meiji: Enlightened rule
  • Fukoku Kyohei: Government slogan given during Meiji period, which means rich country and strong army.
  • Dim sum: Touch your heart.
1603 Tokugawa Ieyasu establishes the Edo Shogunate.
1630 Japan closes country to Western powers except for restricted trade with the Dutch.
1839 – 60 Two Opium Wars. These wars were fought between China and Britain.
1868 Restoration of Meiji
1872 Compulsory education system. First railway line between Tokyo and Yokohama
1889 Meiji Constitution was enacted.
1894 – 95 War between Japan and China
1904 – 05 War between Japan and Russia
1912 Sun Yat-sen found Guomingdang
1914 – 18 The period of First World War
1921 CCP was founded.
1925 Universal male suffrage was granted.
1926 – 49 Civil Wars in China
1931 Japan’s invasion on China
1934 Long March
1945 Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were dropped.
1949 People’s Republic of China Chiang Kai- shek found Republic of China in Taiwan
1956 Japan becomes a member of the United Nations.
1962 China attacks on India over border dispute

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