Class 11 History Notes Chapter 10 Displacing Indigenous Peoples

  • The American empires of Spain and Portugal did not expand after the 17th century.
  • The countries like Holland, France and England began to expand their trading activities and to establish colonies in America, Africa and Asia after 17th century.
  • The word ‘Settler’ is used for the Dutch in South Africa, the British in Ireland. New Zealand and Australia and the Europeans in America.
  • The native people led a simple life. They did not claim their rights over land.
  • The continent of North America extends from Arctic Circle to the Tropic of Cancer and from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The inhabitants of North America used to live in groups before the advent of the Europeans.
  • The original inhabitants of North America came from Asia about 30,000 years ago.
  • The inhabitants of North America grew vegetables and maize. They ate fish and meat also.
  • The people of North America believed in subsistence economy.
  • People spoke numerous languages, but none of them is available to us in written form.
  • Accounts of historical antecedents were recorded by each tribe.
  • They used to transfer their historical knowledge orally to the next generation.
  • Technique of clothes weaving was also known to the inhabitants.
  • In 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the continent of America.
  • News of discovery of gold and silver mines in America spread throughout the world.
  • The Hopis were a native tribe who lived near California.
  • Wampum belts are made of colored shells, sewn together.
  • At the end of 18th century Canada came into existence.
  • England had 13 colonies on the eastern coast of America.
  • In the 1840’s, traces of gold were found in the USA, in California. It led to the ‘Gold Rush’, when thousands of Europeans hurried to America in the hope of making a quick fortune. It also led to the building of railway lines across the continent.
  • British colonies in America declared a war against England in 1776 to gain independence.
  • The War of Independence of the colonies continued till 1783.
  • In 1860, the USA had an undeveloped economy. In 1890, it was the leading industrial power in the world.
  • Invention of barbed wire in 1873 brought out revolution in American agriculture.
  • The American President Abraham Lincoln played a key role in the abolition of the slavery.
  • Explorer William Jansz of Dutch reached Australia in 1606.
  • A.J. Tasman followed the route of William Jansz and named Tasmania after his name.
  • A.J. Tasman discovered New Zealand.
  • Another British explorer, James Cook reached the island of Botany Bay in 1770 and named it New South Wales.
  • In Australia, economic prosperity of the mining industry played a crucial role.
  • Canberra was declared the capital of Australia in 1911.
  • The process of economic development enhanced with rearing of Marino sheep.

Important terms:

  • Colonial: Belonging to a country that controls another country.
  • Oral History: To write history or to dictate others so that it could have been recorded.
  • Native: Citizens of the colonized countries. ‘The Hopis’ are California’s native tribes.
  • Subsistence Economy: It means to produce as much as required for the fulfillment of their basic necessities.
  • Settler: People who settle at a place of which they are not inhabitants.
  • Wampum Belt: A belt made of colored shells.
  • Indigenous people: People belonging naturally to a place.
  • Multiculturalism: A policy that implies a treatment of equality for the cultures of native Europeans and Asian emigrants.
  • Terra Nullius: A policy that implies recognizing no one’s right over a given piece of land.
Timeline
1497 John Cabot reaches Newfoundland.
1763 Quebec conquered by the British.
1770 British sailor James Cook reached Australia.
1774 Quebec Act was passed.
1781 Britain recognised the USA as an independent country.
1783 British give Mid-west to the USA.
1788 British Penal colony formed. Sydney founded.
1803 The USA purchased Louisiana from France.
1837 French-Canadian Rebellion
1865 Slavery was abolished in the USA.
1867 Confederation of Canada.
1870 Transcontinental railway introduced in the USA
1869-85 Red River Rebellion by the Metis in Canada
1892 ‘End’ of American frontier.
1954 Declaration of Indian Rights

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